Advertising is a communication intended to convince a viewer, reader or listener to act. Most, but not all, advertising includes the name of the product or service and how that product or service could benefit the buyer.

The first step you can take is to locate where you will be doing the majority of your business...

Commercial advertisers seek to increase the sale of their products and / or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate qualities of the brand in the minds of consumers.

The media used to communicate includes traditional media such as

  • newspapers,
  • magazines,
  • television,
  • radio,
  • outdoor or
  • direct mail

It now includes new media, or digital messaging, such as

  • the internet,
  • websites,
  • computer multimedia,
  • computer games,
  • CD-ROMs and DVDs and
  • text messages.

Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.

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Ask yourself the following four key questions when planning your Advertising Campaign:

  • What do I want my advertising to accomplish?
  • Who should my advertising speak to?
  • What should my advertising say?
  • What advertising medium should I use?

Each question can have a number of answers, depending upon the specific business situation. Explore the full range of possibilities; you may need several advertising strategies for your particular business.

You want advertising to increase awareness of your business, develop the loyalty of your current customers or generate sales or sales leads. You may want it to do all of these things. What's important is to prioritize your goals. Advertising works best when it's developed to meet one goal at a time.

Once you determine your goals, you can target the right audience to receive your advertising messages. "Mass market" advertising rarely is successful. Have a specific customer type or group in mind when developing your ads.

Ads should be written to communicate a message that your target audience considers important. Stress the benefits of your product or service and keep AIDA in mind:

  • attract Attention,
  • hold Interest,
  • arouse Desire and
  • motivate Action.

In addition to the "traditional" print and broadcast media, there are dozens of other options for placing your ads -- from kiosks to web pages to billboards. The important thing to remember about placement is to go where your targets will have the greatest likelihood of seeing or hearing your ad.

Your choice of media should fit your advertising goals, effectively reaches your target(s) and is cost-effective. While getting the maximum number of impressions per ad dollar spent is important, what is even more important is that the right people see your ad. You may be better off, for example, running a larger, more expensive ad in a highly targeted trade publication whose readership is made up of your targets, than running a small ad in a larger circulation publication that may or may not have readers which fall into your target category.

It may also be time to consider having a professional -- either an independent contractor or advertising agency -- help you plan and execute your ad campaign. While you will pay for their services, they can help you refine your advertising goals and strategies, plan your media placements and write highly effective ad copy designed to achieve your objectives. There are many trade and industry associations that can point you to highly reputable people who specialize in your business area.

Choosing the Right Advertising Medium

Advertising can be an excellent promotional tool enabling businesses to build awareness and inform a wide range of potential customers about their products or services. However, it can be expensive and it is difficult to evaluate its effectiveness. Many small business owners struggle to decide how to choose which advertising medium to use. Instead of carefully planning their marketing investment, they accept the first apparently good 'deal' that comes their way with no indication as to whether that medium will bring the results they had hoped for.

Before you choose to invest in any marketing medium, step back and ask yourself five basic strategic marketing questions. The answers to these questions will help you select the marketing media that will give your small business the best return on your investment.

The five key questions to determine your optimal marketing mix are:

1. What is your target market(s)?

This question sounds simple enough, but it is crucial that you have a very clear notion of who you are targeting the advertisement towards before you can choose the right type of media. It is pointless using local newspapers to advertise the latest designer clothes if most of the readers are pensioners and unlikely to be interested in such products.

To get a good feel for who your best target market(s) is, you should start by analysing who your customers are, and draw some conclusions about who and what type of person is already buying, or will purchase from you in future. For instance, you might find that lawyers make up a large part of your customer base. This might lead you to consider investing in media that specifically targets lawyers, such as local legal newsletters, targeted lawyer mailing lists, or sponsoring opportunities for legal clubs and associations.

2. What media does your target market watch, listen to or read?

Once you have determined who your target market(s) is, the next step is to do some research into what specific media they pay attention to. The best way to find this out is simply to ask the names of the publications they subscribe to, the associations or groups they belong to, the radio stations they listen to, the television programmes they watch, or the type of mail they open and read.

The vast majority of small business owners only consider obvious media options such as the newspapers, radio and television stations however, you can also find inexpensive advertising opportunities in local community bulletins, professional newsletters and targeted direct mail lists.

Don't dismiss opportunities to advertise in newsagents' windows or in local community magazines, as both can provide cost-effective ways of reaching your market.

The reason that many business owners don't discover these less well-known advertising opportunities is because it requires a concerted research effort. Further research to establish where your competitors do and don't advertise will also provide useful information.

3. Which media can extend your message to the most people in your target market per marketing dollar?

This is perhaps the most important issue for the small business owner and to resolve it you require a method of comparing the relative marketing investment of one medium with another by using an objective tool to measure what you get for your marketing dollar.

A commonly used media-buying measurement is the 'CPM' calculation. CPM stands for 'Cost Per Thousand' (from the Latin 'mille') people that view or receive your advertisement. The CPM calculation allows you to break down your media investment into cost per 1,000 'exposures'. For example, if your airtime for running a local radio spot costs $500, and the radio station's data shows that 45,000 people matching the age of your target market audience are listening during the time period you're considering, then you would calculate CPM as follows:

CPM = $500 (advertising cost) / 45,000 (people exposed to your ad) = $0.011

This means that you are paying just over a cent for every person who is exposed to your advert. You can use this tool to analyse each media package you're considering.

Every medium has viewing statistics. For example, newspaper and magazine viewing statistics are expressed in terms of 'circulation' or 'distribution' numbers, and television and radio figures are expressed in terms of 'rating points'.

Most newspapers and magazines publish media packs giving information about the publication, including advertising rates, the numbers of copies sold (circulation), actual readership and reader profiles. You can also obtain a rate card, which gives prices for different types and sizes of advertisements.

Media packs are useful not just because they provide hard data on costs of advertising and readership statistics, but because they can help you to judge whether the image of the publication is right as a vehicle for the promotion of your business, and whether or not its readership fits your customer profile and target market.

If the media you are considering doesn't have a way for you to determine CPM, you should think twice before investing in it. You should always have a way to determine your media buying power objectively.

4. What are your advertising objectives and how well does this medium help you to accomplish them?

Using the CPM calculation helps to answer which medium can extend your message to the most people per marketing dollar, but it still doesn't answer the question of how effective it will be to meet your advertising objectives. Therefore it is important to be clear about your aims and to distinguish between strategic objectives - which aim to raise awareness of your business and develop image over the longer term - and tactical objectives, which aim to encourage specific market segments to buy a certain product or service, often at a specific time.

You should determine what your objectives are at a very early stage.

  • Do you want more people to visit your shop?
  • Do you want potential customers to ring a telephone number?
  • Do you simply want more leads or do you need to generate more hits to your website?

You should decide exactly what you want to get out of the marketing activity and match this to the media that can best achieve it.

If you want to advertise a time-sensitive special promotion, you only need to consider media that allows you to develop the advertisement and promote it in a very short timeframe. If you only want to advertise to specific neighbourhoods you should narrow down your choice of media to those that allow you to pinpoint those target areas. Local newspapers could meet both of these objectives.

Determining what your advertising objectives are, and only choosing media options that help you meet them, will quickly help you narrow down the best media choices for you.

5. How well will this medium allow you to measure the return on your marketing budget?

It's the 'return on your marketing dollar that counts the most. Never choose a medium or develop an advertisement that doesn't allow you to track precisely and calculate your results.

Don't make the mistake of relying on asking your prospects where they heard about you. It has been demonstrated in studies that people can't accurately tell you where they heard about you and if you rely on this type of information to allocate your marketing budget, you might be making a big mistake.

In the end, if you can't accurately measure the response to an advertisement, you'll never be able to track it. If you can't track it, you'll never know what media is working for you and what isn't. If you don't know what media is or isn't working for you, you're probably wasting a lot of money on media that simply doesn't work.

These five basic steps will help you narrow down your media choices, but you should also think about your product or service and how the type of advertisement you are planning will work. The only way to judge the right media is through trial and error and you need to test and test again, so always start small to minimise potential losses. You should also give some thought to:

The nature of your unique selling proposition (USP): a balance must be struck between the type of media image you want to portray and the product or service you are selling. The type of advertisement you choose must also be able to convey the correct appeal.

Complexity of the message: try to avoid overly complicated advertisements. Competition for audience attention: is there too much noise or clutter in the type of medium under consideration? If so, will this distract audience attention?

Internet advertising for small businesses

The boom in the number of people using the Internet and the availability of high-speed connections have made the web an increasingly popular advertising medium. However, as with any marketing campaign, you must have clear objectives for what you want to achieve. Many businesses, including large firms, have simply gone online because they wanted to jump on the bandwagon. To achieve the most effective results from Internet advertising, you should consider:

Search engine optimisation, which is the process of promoting your business online to achieve a better search engine ranking for certain key words and phrases.

Affiliate online marketing is a system whereby one business' website is promoted on the site of another business whose owners have decided the products advertised fit with their audience. In some cases, this works when smaller sites direct traffic to larger sites through an advertisement, in return for a commission if the consumer purchases from the larger business. Large companies like Amazon often offer this type of affiliate deal.

Traditional advertising and marketing initiatives, such as display and classified advertisements, are prevalent on the Internet in the form of banner, pop-up and pop-under advertisements. These are popular with many businesses, and have been shown to drive more traffic to a website than traditional advertising formats.

Evaluating various types of advertising media

In order to determine the success of a campaign and the effectiveness of your chosen type of media, there must be some way of measuring the results. Some forms of advertising may be very successful at attracting attention, but not all enquiries will necessarily convert into sales. This is simple to do when you are looking for a direct response, usually by telephone, from the customer. Other forms of advertising are more difficult to evaluate and it's hard to know if an increase in sales is due to good advertising, or some external factor such as a decline in competition. An advertisement may have reached the right audience, but with the wrong message.

Such issues can only be explored properly through the use of in-depth advertising research methods such as surveys and recall tests, and even then the answers can be ambiguous. Otherwise the well-established small business must rely on their own understanding of what type of people their customers are, and how they make their purchasing decisions.

  • If someone responds to your advertising or publicity by telephone, ensure that you record their name and address.
  • If possible, pre-test any advertising before its launch.
  • Be aware of new or innovative advertising opportunities, especially at local level, as these could provide a forum for your business promotion.

How to Start Your First Advertising Campaign

Here are the first steps a small business can take toward upping the promotion of its products and services.

A small business will usually consider undertaking an advertising program at a pivotal point in its maturity. This point might be:

  • a desire or need to grow
  • a sense competitors are growing at a faster pace
  • research shows competitors are better known
  • a drop in business profits (or donors/donations, for the nonprofits)
  • a change in corporate direction or introduction of a new product or service
  • a misperception of product service offerings exists among potential customers
  • The business should consider a holistic approach that not only encompasses paid advertising, but also includes re-evaluation of the corporate positioning and image, public relations, collateral materials, participation in special events, and so on. There are many, many ways to reach your target audiences beyond paid advertising, and the most successful campaigns include a combination of approaches. In this way, each message reinforces and extends the effects of the others.

How does the business owner know what media will suit them business best?

First, you have to define the target audience. Whether it's business executives between the ages of 35-55 or teenaged boys ages 15-18, once you've defined the audience, media selection becomes easier. For example, teenagers are best reached through radio and select television programming, or posters in schools or youth centers. If you have a highly specialized product that's only used by certain industries or professionals, trade and professional journals may provide the best outlet for advertising.

Is there a calculator or formula you recommend the business owner use to determine their advertising budget? Does it vary by industry?

It truly does vary by industry, gross sales for the company, target audiences, sales objectives, cost of the product or service you are selling, the geographic area to be covered, and the market. For example, advertising in New York and California is considerably more expensive than in Maine. If you're selling a $500,000 computer management system to the top 50 companies in the pharmaceutical industry, you may want to create 50 unique direct mail packages costing $500 apiece and have them hand delivered to 50 CEOs. If you are selling office cleaning services to businesses with 12,000 sq. feet of office space, a classified ad running 40 weeks a year might do the trick.

What is the definition of good advertising?

Good advertising is more relevant to the audience than the advertiser! It solves a problem. It meets a need. It is eye-stopping. It's simple. It gets across one clear idea. It motivates the reader or viewer to take action.

How does a business owner evaluate whether an agency or a freelancer is their best resource?

If you have a reasonable budget ($25,000-50,000 and up), consider using a full-service agency. Not only will they have the copywriting and graphic design talent on staff, they'll have a full-time media planner/buyer on staff as well. An experienced media buyer will know your market and be able to offer the best media recommendations including broadcast and print. They also have the best negotiating power in the marketplace and can often save you money in ad placement, along with ensuring you get the best reach and frequency with your target audience.

If you have a limited budget and you're willing to handle ad placement yourself, freelancers might be a good route. Use a freelance designer and a writer, even though you may be tempted to write the copy yourself. There is a true art to writing ad copy and when every word counts, it pays to have professional help!

Advertise Your Business

The more people you reach when you advertise your business, the more revenue you will generate. Business advertising is a form of marketing communication used to encourage, persuade, or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers or listeners or sometimes a specific group) to take or continue to take some action. Most commonly, the desired result is to influence consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering.

Great advertising is inspired by insights about brands, consumers, and how the two interact. It starts with a problem from the client and ends with a solution for consumers. Therefore, before you write a single line of copy, create a sketch for a layout, or even begin to brainstorm, you need to understand how your brand fits into the lives of its target audience.

Advertising is riddled with myths and misunderstandings. It is simultaneously believed to be both immensely powerful and immensely wasteful, to increase economic prosperity and to be morally questionable.

Great advertising starts with deciding who your best customers are. Are they home owners in a particular part of town? Are they a certain sized business in your industry? Unless you have billions in investment capital, you cannot afford to advertise to everyone. Even if you sell something that ANYONE would want, a limited budget means you must focus only on your best potential customers. After all, that only makes sense. Just twenty percent of your customers will usually account for eighty percent of your sales.

So focus on that special twenty percent.

Lessons in Advertising Your Business

Advertising can be an excellent promotional tool enabling any business to create awareness and inform a range of potential customers about their merchandise. Advertising can be expensive and it is often difficult to evaluate its effectiveness and many small business owners have real difficulty in deciding which advertising medium to use. Instead of carefully planning their, often substantial, marketing investment, they take the first good 'deal' that comes their way with no real idea as to whether that medium will bring the results they had hoped for.

Therefore before you invest in any advertising medium, you need to ask yourself some basic strategic marketing questions and the answers you get will help you select the advertising media that will provide your business with the best return on its advertising spend.

What is your target market(s)? - This question sounds simple enough, but it is crucial that you have a very clear notion of who you are targeting the advertisement towards before you can choose the right type of media. For instance, the local newspaper, which will advertise businesses of all trades and sizes, is probably not suitable if you're targeting a specific age group, e.g. 18-34, and you sell designer clothes. Instead it would make sense to advertise in a glossy lifestyle magazine or local lifestyle supplement. See as an example.

To get a good feel for who your best target market(s) is, you should start by analyzing who your customers are, and draw some conclusions about who and what type of person is already buying, or will purchase from you in future. For instance, you might find that over-50s make up a large part of your customer base. This might lead you to consider investing in media that specifically targets this age group, such as local newsletters, trade directories and magazines aimed at older readers.

What media does your target market watch, listen to or read? - Once you have determined who your target market(s) is, the next step is to do some research into what specific media they pay attention to. The best way to find this out is simply to ask the names of the publications they subscribe to, the associations or groups they belong to, the radio stations they listen to, the television programs they watch, or the type of mail they open and read.

The vast majority of small business owners only consider obvious media options such as the newspapers, radio and television stations. All over the world, however, you can also find inexpensive advertising opportunities in local community bulletins, professional newsletters and targeted direct mail lists.

Do not dismiss opportunities to advertise in newsagents' windows or in local community magazines, as both can provide cost-effective ways of reaching your market.

The reason that many business owners do not explore these less well-known advertising opportunities is because it requires a planned research effort. Further research to establish where your competitors do and do not advertise will also provide useful information.


Brands create consumer trust and emotional attachments. As a result, they foster relationships between consumers and products that withstand pricing wars, transcend offers from new competitors, and even overcome rare lapses in product or service excellence.

Great brands aren’t just known and trusted. As you develop your brand and it gains strength and loyalty in your market area, look forward to reaping the following benefits.

Brands are a big business today because they make selling easier in person and online. People prefer to buy from companies they feel they know and can trust, and brands put forth that assurance.

Whether you are selling products to consumers, investment opportunities to stockholders, job opportunities to applicants, or ideas to constituents, a brand paves the way for success by establishing awareness of your unique and meaningful promise before you ever present your sales proposition.

When people are aware of your brand, they’re aware of the positive characteristics you stand for. Long before they get ready to make a purchase, they feel they know who you are and what unique value they can count on you to deliver. As a result, when it comes time to make a sale, brand owners can concentrate on the wants and needs of the consumer rather than take up valuable consumer time trying to explain themselves and their unique attributes.

Without a brand, you have to build a case for why you deserve the consumer’s business every single time you get ready to make a sale. While brand owners are closing the deal, those without strong brands are still introducing themselves.

Free Advertising

Advertising for free to increase your profits seems like an impossible thing but there are several ways by which the cost of advertising can be reduced or even removed completely, with the help of some imagination and creativity. Any business wanting to advertise, can write articles related to their field of expertise that can be submitted to media and publications having interest in that particular field. These articles can be interesting, informative and also have information about the company. Due to the rise in Internet users and websites, new websites have sprung up which offer free services. Articles can be written for these websites and they can be broadcasted for free and viewed by hundreds of people everyday.

Once the business has gained some recognition, within no time it will gain popularity and this popularity can lead to you being invited on radio and television talk shows and even to interviews. Such kind of opportunities should not be missed as they provide a chance for free promotion.

Write to producers and follow up with a telephone call or in-person visit. During the visit, the nature of expertise can be discussed, which will be of interest to the viewers of the particular channel. Once a business owner gains the status of being public-friendly, more offers start pouring in.

Free bulletin board located in the neighborhood, like in grocery stores, libraries, and salons, are another good idea. Advertising circulars can be posted on such boards for free. Circulars for mass distribution can be handed out at the mall, shopping center, bus stops, particularly on weekends when there is a big rush. Students can be hired on part time basis for this purpose.

Promotional advertisement can be printed on the envelopes used by the business firms. Both the sender and the receiver can view this advertisement. Promotional offers can be sent to customers by postcards, which should be utilized to its full, leaving only room for writing the address.

Some of the new mail order publications offer free first time and seasonal deductions for advertisers. Other publications offer pay per inquiry space. Inquiries can be made about stand-by space, which means that the publication holds the submission of advertisement until the space is not sold and in that case, huge savings can be achieved and local newspapers also provide these kinds of offers.

If the business is involved in ad sheet or catalog publishing, other publishers can be contacted for the purpose of bartering an advertising exchange. They can place advertisement in their publication, in return for placing their advertisement in the business’s publication.

Free offers can be provided to the customer. This can be done by emailing or printing newsletter about information regarding the area of interest of the targeted customers and can be made popular by using tag lines. Attach a free coupon with it, which the customers can use it for shopping, if a criterion is met like minimum purchase. This response could be huge and most of them will purchase something or the other to get the free offer. The basic ingredient for advertising for free is imagination and research.

Opportunities should be searched and should be applied to increase sales.

Advertising Slogan

An advertising slogan is a short, memorable, informative wording used by companies in their advertising campaigns. The advertising slogan is a means of drawing attention to the distinctive features of the business and / or its merchandise. The purpose is to emphasize a phrase that the company wishes to be remembered by; either for marketing a specific corporate image or for a business product or to inform a specific consumer base.

Some slogans are created just for specific limited-time campaigns; others are intended as a corporate slogan, to be used for extended periods. Various slogans start out as the former, and are, over time, converted into the latter as ideas take hold with the public. Some advertising slogans are memorable after general use is discontinued.

A word, a phrase or a sentence can function as a constant. This usage is so common today that we even have a word for it—slogan. When we hear the expression ‘Where do you want to go today?’ what do we think of? We don’t need to be told who the advertiser is. We know the advertising has to be for Microsoft. Slogans are obvious ones. But there are other types of constants that we don’t use as frequently. What makes it more difficult to discuss them is that we do not have any unique words, like ‘slogan’, to sum them up.

The key factor that drives the need for a new slogan is the intent to produce new advertising.

New advertising is most often developed when:

  • A brand's advertising undergoes change at its current agency.
  • A brand's advertising undergoes new thinking at a new agency.
  • A new or revised brand, product or service is introduced.

Most advertising agencies have a comprehensive account planning process which typically involves answering the following questions:

  • What is being advertised?
  • To whom are you advertising?
  • What do you know about your audience?
  • What do you want them to do?
  • What can you say that will get them to do that?
  • How will you know it worked?
  • What ideas might work?
  • What is your tone of voice?
  • What is your key message?

Advertising Signs

Advertising signs are designed to create attention and provide a memorable impression very quickly, leaving the reader thinking about the advertisement after they have seen it. They have to be readable in a very short time because they are usually read while being passed by so there are usually only a few words, in large print, and a humorous or arresting image in brilliant color.

Place your message where your best prospects cannot miss it. From posters on college campuses and health clubs to advertising signs on moblie carts, you can choose the right place and context for your advertising. Place-based advertising signs, or what the industry calls "alternative out-of-home" advertising, allows you to reach prospects wherever they happen to be and when they're in a receptive frame of mind.

What makes advertising signs so attractive are that they can literally go wherever your prospects go. Are your best prospects movie-goers? You can advertise on signs near movie theaters. Do you want to reach subway users? You can place advertising signs and informational materials on a rail station. There are posters above diaper-changing areas that targeting mothers and on kiosks located near colleges and urban parks to reach students.

Where will your best prospects be when they see your advertising sign?

Press Releases

A press release is a written or recorded communication directed at the news media for the purpose of announcing newsworthy items. Typically, they are now e-mailed to assignment editors at

  • newspapers,
  • magazines,
  • radio stations,
  • television stations, or
  • television networks.

The Internet has completely changed the way press releases are submitted. Commercial, fee-based press release distribution services, such as news wire services, or free website services co-exist, making news distribution more affordable and leveling the playing field for smaller businesses. These service websites hold a repository of press releases and make sure that their press relaeases are prominent on the web by being easily found by the major search engines services.

Writing and submitting press releases is not the same as writing articles or creating advertising about your business. Press releases have a much greater degree of credibility among hard copy publications and major current affairs orientated websites alike. They will be published as released, amended or changed completely to suit the publisher.

Ideas for a press release subject

  • The launch of your new website. Make sure you define who your target audience is, and differentiate specifically what your website offers
  • A free email newsletter that you're publishing. Again, make sure that you are specific about whom you're aiming at and why your service is of benefit
  • An RSS feed that you've introduced. Remember to give a brief background on RSS and its usefulness, as well as your service
  • A Podcast show that you have started. Podcasts are still new and original enough to gain good press coverage if your show is good enough. Whether it's an outsourcing relationship with your site coder, or an alliance with a business in the same field, there is a story in it
  • An online award that you have won.
  • The reaching of a measurable milestone. Your 1,000th sale of a product, your first sale to a different country, a business anniversary and so on.

Newspaper Advertising

Newspaper advertising is still the first kind of advertising that businesses think about when putting together an advertising campaign. Newspaper advertising can do a lot more than just advertise one item or one sale, each advertisement can work really hard to bring in customers, and then bring them back again and again. They are an excellent way to reach a large number of people, especially those aged 45-plus who tend to read the paper more frequently than younger demographic groups. You can target your advertisements to the appropriate market by requesting that your advertisements run in the section that most closely relates to your target audience.

Newspaper display advertising is a form of advertising where the advertisement appears alongside regular editorial content. Display advertisements are generally used by businesses and corporations towards promotion of their goods and services and are generally for larger budget clients. Newspaper display advertisements are now different from the regular "display ads" terminology, which has now come to refer to advertisements placed on the internet in banner and other rich media format.

Newspaper advertisements can span across multiple columns and can even cover full page, half page, quarter page or other custom sizes. They are designed in high resolution colored and black and white formats providing higher visibility for the mass audiences of newspapers. For many major newspapers in developing markets, display advertising plays a significant role in subsidizing the cost of the publication.

Many advertisers design their own advertisements without any prior training. This has led to the rise of larger number of retailers who think that making their own advertisement is the only way to get it right. This approach saves a lot of money and is good for small businesses but only if they reach the correct customers. The one time cost of placing a small advertisement can be high so effort should be made to place them effectively. It is not necessary to have a full-page advertisement posted in the newspaper as, if smartly designed, half page advertisements can do wonders and the money saved can be used to advertise concurrently in other mediums such as the Internet.

Classified Advertising

Classified advertising is a type of advertising that is common in newspapers, online and in various other periodicals which may be sold or distributed free of charge. Classified advertisements are typically short, as they are charged for by the word or by the line in a newspaper or magazine.

Almost all printed publications have sections of classified advertisements; there are also publications which contain only classified advertisements. The advertisements are grouped into categories or classes such as

  • for sale,
  • wanted
  • personal, and
  • services.

The term classified comes from these categories as the advertisements are classified into groups. Classified advertisements are always much cheaper than larger display advertisements used by businesses and are mostly placed by private individuals with single items they wish to sell or buy or those looking for relationships or offering local services.

Advertising Agencies

Advertising is a form of communication for encouraging or persuading your audience to take a new action in relation to your products and services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to purchasing from your business.

With the economy swinging upward and even the smallest business empowered by the Internet, there has never been a better time to get started in your own venture.

However, without solid advertising and marketing, you won't get customers. Even worse, you can spend a fortune on advertising in the wrong places and you still won't get customers.

Typical advertising agency clients include businesses and corporations, non-profit organizations and government agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce an advertising campaign.

Advertising agencies specialize in the production of campaigns on behalf of client companies who wish to advertise. The agency is the link between the advertiser and the media where the advertisement will appear. This process involves researching, planning, designing and writing advertisements, producing artwork, films, videos, posters and buying the appropriate advertising space. Small agencies may contract out some of these responsibilities to freelancers specializing in writing, layout, illustration, photography or voice-overs.

Internet Advertising Advice

Ever since the advent of Internet, advertising on the World Wide Web has been very popular. Many corporations, companies and businesses have taken advantage of this and you can see ads on any web pages you visit. Consumers can go to any search engine and type the keyword relating to what they are looking for and hit search and they will be provided with a huge list from which they can select. This is a very cost effective and time saving method of advertising.

It has become really easy for any business to have a personalized website by which they can advertise, directly interact with the customer; provide details about their product and services. Regular newsletters, offers, discounts can be pasted on site to increase the interest of the website visitors.

The boom in the number of people using the Internet and the availability of high-speed connections has made the web an increasingly popular advertising medium. However, as with any marketing campaign, you must have clear objectives for what you want to achieve. To achieve the most effective results from Internet advertising, you should consider:

  • Pay-per-click marketing enables you to promote your business online via an advertisement or 'sponsored link' on a search engine. The adverts appear (often on a sidebar) when someone performs a search using a term containing one or more keywords included in the advert. The listings are sold on a pay-per-click basis, meaning you only pay when someone clicks on your advert and is directed to your site.
  • An affiliate marketing program encourages other business websites to link to your site and direct relevant traffic your way. In exchange they receive a commission - often calculated as a percentage of sales generated, or as a fee based on the number of visitors or the number of leads generated.
  • Display and classified adverts are used on the Internet in the form of banner, pop-up and pop-under adverts. They enable a business to advertise on the sites of other businesses and in e-zines, usually for a fee equivalent to the amount of space the advert takes up. They are popular with many businesses and have been shown to drive more traffic to a website than traditional advertising formats.
  • Social media advertising is growing in prevalence as social networking grows. Social media advertising enables businesses to build a profile through social networking techniques such as blogging, thereby interacting with it and targeting their market more specifically.

Online Advertising

Online advertising is the delivery of promotional marketing messages to potential consumers. This includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising, including web banner advertising, and mobile advertising. Like off-line advertising media, online advertising involves both a publisher, who integrates advertisements into its online content, and an advertiser, who provides the advertisements to be displayed on the publisher's content. Advertising agencies will help generate and place the advertising copy and an online service delivers the advertisement and tracks statistics as well as advertising affiliates that do independent promotional work for the advertiser.

Online advertising is now a huge business sector and is still growing rapidly. Last year, Internet advertising revenues surpassed those of cable television and nearly exceeded those of broadcast television. Online advertising is widely used across all industry sectors and is suitable for small local businesses as well as large multi-nationals

Whether you are checking your email, shopping on a website or just searching for information, online advertisements are everywhere! The Internet offers a new and cheaper advertising space compared to traditional spaces like print, television, radio and outdoor advertising. It is a revolution for small and home business owners that are clearly making the most of it.

For a start up business, online advertising is a wonderful tool that can maximize visibility, drive traffic to the company's website, increase sales and build a solid brand in the process. Going to an expensive advertising agency to run your campaign would most definitely is unneccessary as long as you focus on what you want to sell and provide a strong dose of imagination.

Advertising Network

An online advertising network is a simple system that connects advertisers to web sites that want to host advertisements. The key function of any network is matching publishers to the relevant advertiser demand. The fundamental difference between traditional media advertising networks and online advertising networks is that online advertising networks use a central server to deliver advertisements to consumers, which enables targeting, tracking and reporting of impressions in ways not possible with analog media alternatives.

The advertising network market is a large and growing market, with the top 20 companies earning about $8 billion in revenues last year. This represents around a third of the total display advertising market, forecasted to grow by 18% a year for the forseeable future. This growth has resulted in many new players in the market, and has encouraged acquisitions of ad networks by large companies entering the market.

Advertising networks are primarily involved in selling space for online ads to appear. This online advertising inventory comes in many different forms, including space on

  • websites,
  • RSS feeds,
  • blogs,
  • instant messaging applications,
  • adware,
  • e-mails, and
  • on other sources.

The dominant form of inventory continues to be third-party websites, who work with advertising networks for either a fee or a share of the ad revenues.

There are 3 main types of online advertising networks:

  • Vertical Networks: They represent the publications in their portfolio, with full transparency for the advertiser about where their ads will run. They typically promote high quality traffic at market prices and are heavily used by brand marketers. The economic model is generally revenue share. Vertical Networks offer ROS (Run-Of-Site) advertising across specific Channels (example: Auto or Travel) or they offer site-wide advertising options, in which case they operate in a similar fashion to Publisher Representation firms.
  • Blind Networks: These companies offer good pricing to direct marketers in exchange for those marketers relinquishing control over where their ads will run, though some networks offer a "site opt out" method. The network usually runs campaigns as RON or Run-Of-Network. Blind networks achieve their low pricing through large bulk buys of typically remnant inventory combined with conversion optimization and ad targeting technology.
  • Targeted Networks: Sometimes called “next generation” ad networks, these focus on specific targeting technologies such as behavioral or contextual, that have been built into an Ad server. Targeted networks specialize in using consumer clickstream data to enhance the value of the inventory they purchase. Other specialized targeted networks include social graph technologies which attempt to enhance the value of inventory using connections in social networks.

Social Networking

A social networking service is a platform to build networks for people who, share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. A social networking service consists of a profile of each user, their brief details, together with a range of additional details alongside services managed by the social networking service.

Social networking are web-based services that allow individuals to create public profiles, to create lists of users with whom to share their connection, and view and cross the connections within the system. Social networking services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet that include e-mail and instant messaging. Social networking sites vary in what they provide but they generally incorporate communication tools such as:

  • mobile connectivity,
  • photo/video/sharing and
  • blogging.

Most online community services are now considered to be social networking services, though in a broader sense, social networking service usually means a service centered on individuals whereas online community services tend to be group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share

  • ideas,
  • pictures,
  • posts,
  • activities,
  • events, and
  • interests

with people in their network.

The problem for advertisers is that social advertising options are very confusing. What is the difference between a Facebook promoted post and a Facebook sponsored story? When should you promote a check-in story? Do social ads even work?

These are some of the questions that make social advertising very tricky but do not be put of if what you try fails to work. Educate yourself and learn the most effective ways to leverage social advertising in the current market.

As an example of a simple plan:

  • Establish measurable marketing goals.
  • Set your budget (start small).
  • Know your audience’s needs.
  • Pick the channel.
  • Research different ad types (how they work, how to leverage them and how your audience will perceive them).
  • Check out the competition.
  • Optimize your landing pages.
  • Experiment and create ad copy (two or three versions).
  • Test and measure.

Advertising Software

Advertising Software, graphic design software and desktop publishing software are essentially the same thing. The primary difference is that the desktop publishing category includes some consumer level programs not typically considered advertising or graphic design software. The best advertising software programs are those applications used primarily in a professional environment whether that is for in-house design or by freelance graphic designers.

Graphic design is the art of communication, stylizing, and problem-solving through the use of type, space, and image. The field is considered a subset of visual communication and communication design, but sometimes the term "graphic design" is used interchangeably with these due to overlapping skills involved. Advertising designers use various methods to create and combine words, symbols, and images to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. An advertising designer may use a combination of typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce a final result. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated.

Common uses of graphic design include identity (logos and branding), publications (magazines, newspapers and books), print advertisements, posters, billboards, website graphics and elements, signs and product packaging. For example, a product package might include a logo or other artwork, organized text and pure design elements such as images, shapes and color which unify the piece. Composition is one of the most important features of graphic design, especially when using pre-existing materials or diverse elements.

Modern uses for advertising, illustration and graphic design software run the gamut in the creative world, from cartoon illustrations and advertisements to logo, banner and poster design. Graphic design software requires a certain set of tools in order to produce, edit and layout the various media types in the design world. Industry sets the standard of common protocols and acceptable formats, and software must provide all the tools to meet these guidelines. Photo editing and retouching, along with vector illustration and page layout, all fall within the scope of modern graphic design. Several of the applications we reviewed include a similar user interface and are set up to be compatible with other applications and tools (such as a drawing tablet).

PPC Advertising

PPC or pay per click advertising is an online advertising system used to direct traffic to websites. The website owners pay the publisher when their advertisement is clicked. It is defined simply as “the amount spent to get an advertisement clicked.” With search engines, advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market. Participating third party content sites charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. PPC "display" advertisements, also known as "banner" ads, are shown on web sites or search engine results with related content that the web site owner has agreed to show.

In contrast to the generalized portal, which seeks to drive a high volume of traffic to one site, PPC implements the so-called affiliate model, which provides purchase opportunities wherever people may be surfing. It does this by offering financial incentives, in the form of a percentage of revenue, to affiliated partner sites. The affiliates provide click-throughs to the merchant making it is a pay-for-performance model. If an affiliate does not generate sales, it represents no cost to the merchant. Variations include banner exchange, pay-per-click, and revenue sharing programs.

Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches a participating advertiser's keyword list, or when a content site displays relevant wording. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored advertisements and appear adjacent to, above, or beneath organic results on search engine results pages, or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site.

Google is the world largest search engine serving around half a billion search requests of information a day at the time of writing this article. With such a large users based, it is little wonder that many internet businesses are currently making use of Google Adwords to grow their business.

However, that does not mean that you should rush into Google Adwords without any proper plans.

First determine which markets that you are targeting and how you want to market your products or services. For example if you are selling an affiliate product, first find out information like:

  • is it a global products / services that is available and delivered worldwide
  • the Language of the Target market
  • which countries are internet savvy and more likely to buy your products / services
  • is there any payment restriction - clickbank and paypal both have their countries restriction where payment will not be accepted. You will be wasting your money if you include those countries in Google Adwords.

Next, with the above information collected, you can start to write out your Adwords bidding strategy.

Bidding for adwords requires research, trial and error. Normally, PPC like Google Adwords will have a keywords research tools allowing you to research common search words. Try to think of as many different combination of words as you can. With the bidding plan in place, you should now think about how you can capture as many email address as you can when the visitors click through to your website.

Many PPC Marketers will have either a free ezine or short marketing course and an autoresponder to capture their web visitors email address so that they can follow-up with them. You will need to monitor your sales conversion results for each PPC promotions and check whether are you targeting the correct markets with those keywords which you have bid.

If you plan wisely before embarking on your PPC campaign you will actually maximize your revenue compared to costs.

Banner Advertising

Banner Advertising is a form of advertising on the Internet which entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. The banner advertisement is delivered by a central ad server. When the advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad, the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents). This system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place. Usually though, advertisers use advertising networks to serve their advertisements, resulting in a revenue sharing system and higher quality ad placement.

A live banner advertisement is created dynamically at the time of display, instead of being pre-programmed with fixed content. Live banners function the same way as traditional web banners: promoting a brand, product, service, or an event, except that the banner content is variable and may even update in real time. Live banners are built using technologies such as Adobe Flash, Java, or Microsoft Silverlight, and usually employ animation together with text, images, graphics, sounds and video to catch the viewer’s attention. Depending on the banner design, any of these multimedia elements may be defined as dynamic and therefore variable.

Banner advertisements appear on all sorts of web pages and vary considerably in appearance and subject matter, but they all share a basic function: if you click on them, your Internet browser will take you to the advertiser's Web site. Banner advertisements are usually relatively simple pieces of HTML code, but their presence on the Web and their importance in Internet-based business is immense.

Placing banner advertisements on your website can increase your monthly revenue greatly. This option is better than being an affiliate for several companies because you will get one monthly fee no matter how many of your visitors go to the website or make a purchase. The main thing is for you to create an informative website filled with useful articles, so that you can generate a high amount of returning visitors. As your site rises on search engine rankings, the blank space on your site will begin to look more and more appealing to advertisers. Anyone can be an affiliate, but to have a banner placed in a good spot on a high-ranking website will bring in the most revenue for a company. Once you have established yourself as a site that can be profitable for them, you can rent out different spaces on your site for advertisers to place banner advertisements. Each month you will be paid the same fee, no matter how much they do or do not make off of you.

email Advertising

email advertising is directly sending a commercial message using email. In its broadest sense, every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered email advertising. It involves using email to send advertisements, request business, or solicit sales or donations, and is utilized to build loyalty, trust, or brand awareness. Email advertising can be sent to either sold lists or to a current customer database.

Broadly email advertising is usually used to refer to:

  • Sending email messages with the purpose of enhancing the relationship of a merchant with its current or previous customers, to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business.
  • Sending email messages with the purpose of acquiring new customers or convincing current customers to purchase something immediately.
  • Adding advertisements to email messages sent by other companies to their customers.

It is estimated that businesses spent US$3 billion on email marketing last year and will grow by 50% over the next five years.

E-mail is the growth area of the current advertising models. It is cheap it is fast and it is effective. Response rates for permission-based advertising, where the customer is asked before sending e-mail, are significantly higher than banner advertising click-through rates.

E-mail is successful because it is a form of dialogue. Your customers can respond to you instead of a web page. An e-mail campaign is an extension of other advertising strategies rather than replacing them entirely, but you can add the personal touch by using e-mail. E-mail can be targeted so effectively that you can be creative such as embedding audio and video and interactive capabilities in your messages, for relatively little expense.

Advertising Revenue

Today’s online publishers, large and small, operate in a complicated and fragmented advertising environment. The online advertising industry realized annual revenues estimated at over $46 billion and banner advertising accounts for an estimated 23% of all online advertising revenues. Publishers of banner advertisements face a scheduling optimization problem on a daily basis and several papers in the literature have proposed mathematical models and solution approaches to address a banner advertisement scheduling problem. We find that a variable-display frequency model provides significantly improved space utilization relative to the fixed-display frequency model and consequently higher revenues for the publishers.

All website owners need to pay for the costs of creating content and making it available online. Whether delivering entertainment, products, news, services, social networking or opinions, they need to pay their way by selling advertising or charging their users.

Website owners span the range from individual bloggers to multinational companies. If they sell advertising, they can do this directly themselves, via their own sales force. Alternatively, they can use an ad network to place ads on the pages of their website. Many publishers use a combination of these methods if they cannot sell all their ad space themselves as a publisher may have an unpredicted surge in traffic — and therefore ad space — resulting from a popular post, or from a major website linking to them.

In order to maximize revenue from display advertising, the best thing you can do is sell your ad inventory directly to targeted advertisers willing to pay a premium rate. Of course, many publishers don’t sell all of their inventory directly and instead rely on network partners to monetize remnant inventory. Make sure you place the ad correctly. Ads that people can’t see won’t be clicked on, so make sure the ads are located in a prime spot that will generate interest. The best spots for an ad is on the top fold of the webpage, meaning the viewer can see the ad without having to scroll. But not on the very top, most people do not look there.

Money Making Blogs

In the past few years, blogs have become a big part of business on the internet. Everything from lol cats to celebrity gossip can bring millions of visitors and a steady stream of revenue. It can be hard to figure of where to start with your own money-making blog. Blog marketing is something that everyone seems to be doing and it can be seen that many of them are blogging for money although some are not. The numbers vary and depend on what you are looking at but if you are wanting a business that consists of blog marketing, then you would be blogging for money. However, if you just have a blog that you use to write your thoughts and journal more or less, you are probably not blogging for money.

Everyone blogs for a different reason.

If you are going to make a decent amount of money, you need to be persistent, and consistent. To do so there are some things as well as techniques and tools that you must know and know how to use. While good content is something that you will need for your blog to make money, you also want to ensure that it is original content as well. You cannot market a blog with something that is copied and that you do not own the rights. Plagiarism will get you in trouble with Google as well as the person that originally wrote the content. Be sure that all of your posts are ones that only you own the rights too. This is a great thing to know and do when you are marketing your blog to make money. Content is the key to successful marketing.

Tracking is another part of blog marketing for money that is so very important. You want to be able to track your visitors and clickers to know where they are coming from. You want to be able to tell what keywords they searched on to find your blog and where they did their searching. Doing so will help take out all of the guess work when it comes to blog marketing and making money while blogging. You will want to know what keywords are working, and which are not. So that you will know which keywords to use more of and which ones to drop.

It is important when you are blog marketing for money to find other sites and blogs that are in the same market as yours, but not in direct competition with you to exchange links with. This will help you out a lot as well, especially if you can get some good exchanges with high authority sites. The higher the page rank of your link exchange, the better for your blog. Google and the other search engines will recognize your link exchanges, and the more the better in this case.

If you are blog marketing for money you just simply have to know what works and what does not. It is truly a trial and error basis and if you think you might know of a new way to market your blog the most effectively, try it. You just never know if it will work for you until you do. Then if you find something that works and works well, consider making it in to an ebook and marketing that as well.

You will have the know how and then it is just a matter of using it.

The Best Business Advertising Was Planned That Way.

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